2018 European Union VAT rates

The EU sets the broad VAT rules through European VAT Directives, and has set the minimum standard VAT rate at 15%.  The 28 member states are otherwise free to set their standard VAT rates.  The EU also permits a maximum of two reduced rates, the lowest of which must be 5% or above. Some countries have variations on this, including a third, reduced VAT rate, which they had in place prior to their accession to the EU.

Member states have now agreed that they will be free to set the reduced rates on most goods and services, including: e-books; domestic fuel; clothing; and female hygiene products.

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20% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
13% Reduced Domestic flights; entrance to sporting events; admissions to cultural events and amusement parks; hotel accommodation; firewood; some agricultural supplies; wine production; cut flowers and plants for decorative use.
10% Reduced Foodstuffs; take-away food; water supplies; pharmaceutical products; domestic transport (excluding flights); international and intra-community road and rail transport; newspapers and periodicals; printed books (excluding e-books); pay and cable TV; TV licence; social services; domestic refuse collection; treatment of waste and waste water; restaurants (ex all beverages); cut flowers and plants for food production; some agricultural supplies.
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport (excluding road and rail).
21% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
12% Reduced Some foodstuffs; certain agricultural supplies; some social housing; some construction work on new buildings; restaurants (all beverages excluded); certain energy products e.g. coal, lignite, coke; some pesticides and fertilizers; certain tyres and inner tubes for agricultural use.
6% Reduced Some foodstuffs (including takeaway food); soft drinks; water supplies; some pharmaceutical products; some medical equipment for disabled persons; domestic transport of passengers; some books (excluding e-books); newspapers and periodicals (with certain exceptions); entrance to cultural events and amusement parks; some social housing; certain repair and renovation of private dwellings; some agricultural supplies; hotel accommodation; admission to sporting events; use of sports facilities; intra-community and international road, rail and inland waterways transport; some motor vehicles (cars for the disabled); some social services; certain undertaker and cremation services; minor repairs (including bicycles, shoes and leather goods, clothing and household linen); firewood; cut flowers and plants for decorative use and food production.
0% Zero Daily and weekly newspapers; certain recycled materials and by-products; intra-community and international transport (excluding road, rail and inland waterways).
20% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
9% Reduced Hotel accommodation
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport
25% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
13% Reduced Some foodstuffs; water supplies (excluding bottled water); newspapers (other than daily published newspapers with less than 50% advertising content); periodicals (magazines other than science periodicals with less than 50% advertising content); tickets for concerts; hotel accomodation; some agricultural inputs; certain undertaker and cremation services supplies; children’s car seats; electricity supply.
5% Reduced Some foodstuffs (including bread, milk and infant formula); pharmaceutical products (only approved medicines prescribed by a doctor); some medical equipment; books (excluding e-books); daily newspapers (with less than 50% advertising content); scientific periodicals; admission to cinema.
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport (excluding road and rail).
19% Standard
All other taxable goods and services; land transactions for business use.
9% Reduced Domestic road passenger transport; domestic passenger transport by sea; hotel accomodation; restaurants and cafes (excluding bars).
5% Reduced Certain foodstuffs; non-alcoholic beverages; water supplies; pharmaceutical products; medical equipment for disabled persons; children’s car seats; certain passenger transport; books (excluding e-books); newspapers and periodicals; admission to cultural events and amusement parks; writers and composers; renovation and repair of private dwellings; some agricultural supplies; admission to sports events; use of sporting facilities; domestic waste collection; hairdressing; some undertaker and cremation services; LPG (in cylinders); take away food (excluding soft drinks and alcoholic beverages); social housing; cut flowers for food production; waste and waste water treatment.
0% Zero Intracommunity and international transport.
21% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
15% Reduced Foodstuffs (excluding essential child nutrition and gluten-free food); non-alcoholic beverages; take away food; water supplies; medical equipment for disabled persons; children's car seats; some domestic passenger transport; some books (excluding e-books); admission to cultural events, shows and amusement parks; writers and composers; social housing; renovation and repair of private dwellings; cleaning of private households; some agricultural supplies; hotel accomodation; admission to sporting events; use of sporting facilities; social services; supplies to undertaker and cremation services; medical and dental care; domestic care services; firewood; some pharmaceuticals; some domestic waste collection and street cleaning; treatment of waste and waste water; food provided in restaurants and cafes; cut flowers and plants for decorative use and food production.
10% Reduced Foodstuffs (selected baby food and gluten-free food); newspapers and periodicals; some pharmaceutical products; some books (excluding e-books).
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport.

25% Standard
All taxable goods and services.
0% Zero Newspapers and journals (published more than once a month); intra-community and international transport.

20% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
9% Reduced Certain pharmaceutical products; medical equipment for disabled persons; books (excluding e-books); newspapers and periodicals; hotel accommodation.
0% Zero Some passenger transport; intra-community and international transport.

24% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
14% Reduced Foodstuffs (excluding live animals); some agricultural supplies; restaurants (excluding alcoholic beverages); some soft drinks; take away food; cut flowers and plants for food production.
10% Reduced Pharmaceutical products; domestic passenger transport; books (excluding e-books); newspapers and periodicals (sold on subscription); admission to cultural events and amusement parks; TV licence; writers and composers; hotel accommodation; admission to sports events; use of sports facilities; domestic transport.
0% Zero Printing services for publications of non-profitmaking organisations; intra-community and international transport; some taxation of gold ingots, bars and coins.
20% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
10% Reduced Some foodstuffs; certain non-alcoholic beverages; some pharmaceutical products; domestic passenger transport; intra-community and international road (some exceptions) and inland waterways transport; admission to some cultural services ;admission to amusement parks (with cultural aspect); pay/cable TV; some renovation and repairs of private dwellings; some cleaning in private households; some agricultural supplies; hotel accommodation; restaurants (excluding alcoholic beverages); some domestic waste collection; certain domestic care services; firewood; take away food; bars, cafes and nightclubs (except supply of alcoholic beverages); cut flowers and plants for decorative use; writers and composers etc; some social housing.
5.5% Reduced Some foodstuffs; some non-alcoholic beverages; school canteens; water supplies, medical equipment for disabled persons; books (excluding those with pornographic or violent content); some e-books; admission to certain cultural events; some social housing; some renovation and repair of private dwellings; admission to sports events; some domestic care services; cut flowers and plants for food production.
2.1% Reduced Some pharmaceutical products; some newspapers and periodicals; public television licence fees; admission to certain cultural events; some livestock intended for use as foodstuff.
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport (excluding road and inland waterways).

19% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
7% Reduced Some foodstuffs; water supplies (excluding bottled water); medical equipment for disabled persons; some domestic passenger transport; intra-community and international passenger transport for certain road, rail and inland waterway transportation; books (excluding e-books and books whose content is harmful to minors); audiobooks; newspapers and periodicals (except those containing content harmful to minors and/or more than 50% advertising); admission to cultural events; writers and composers; some agricultural inputs; hotel accommodation; certain admission to sports events; social services; medical and dental care; firewood; some timber for industrial use; take away food; cut flowers and plants for decorative use and food production; taxation of some gold coins and jewellery.
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport (excluding road and rail and some inland waterways transport).
24% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
13% Reduced Some foodstuffs; certain take away food; some cut flowers and plants for food production; some non-alcoholic beverages; water supplies; some pharmaceutical products; some medical equipment for disabled persons; some agricultural supplies; domestic care services; hotel accommodation; energy products (excluding firewood and timber for industrial use), certain social services.
6% Reduced Some pharmaceutical products; some books (excluding e-books); some newspapers and periodicals; certain theatre admissions.
0% Zero Intra-community and international air and sea transport.

27% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
18% Reduced Certain foodstuffs; some take away food; admission to certain open-air concerts; hotel accommodation.
5% Reduced Certain foodstuffs; pharmaceutical products (intended for human use); some medical equipment for disabled persons (excluding repair); books (excluding e-books); newspapers and periodicals; some social housing; district heating; some supplies of new buildings; restaurant and catering services (food prepared on site and non-alcoholic beverages); internet access services; certain writers and composers services.
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport.

23% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
13.5% Reduced Certain foodstuffs; some pharmaceutical products; children's car seats; social housing; renovation and repair of private dwellings; cleaning in private households; some agricultural supplies; medical and dental care; collection of domestic waste; treatment of waste and waste water; minor repairs of bicycles, shoes and leather goods and household linen; energy products (excluding LPG); construction work on new buildings; supply of immovable property; some social housing; routine cleaning of immovable property; health studio services; certain tourist services; photography services; services supplied by jockeys; works of art and antiques; short term hire of certain passenger vehicles; driving schools; services supplied by veterinary surgeons; cut flowers and plants for decorative use; concrete and concrete blocks.
9% Reduced Certain foodstuffs; take away food; some bars and cafes; newspapers and periodicals; admission to cultural events and amusement parks; hotel accommodation; restaurants (excluding all beverages); use of sports facilities; hairdressing.
4.8% Reduced Livestock intended for use in the preparation of foodstuffs; some agricultural supplies.
0% Zero Some foodstuffs; wax candles (undecorated); certain animal feed; certain fertilizers; some food supplies for food production; some medicines for human consumption; some medicines for veterinary use (excluding pets); certain feminine hygiene products; some medical equipment; clothing and footwear for children; intra-community and international transport; cut flowers and plants for food production; supplies of seeds and plants for use in food production.
22% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
10% Reduced Some foodstuffs; water supplies; some pharmaceutical products; domestic passenger transport; admission to cultural events; some social housing; renovation and repair of private dwellings; some supplies and construction work for new buildings; some agricultural supplies; hotel accomodation; restaurants; admission to certain sports events; energy products (excluding district heating); firewood; collection of domestic waste; some waste water treatment; alcoholic beverages in bars and cafes; take away food; cut flowers and plants for decorative use and food production.
5% Reduced Some foodstuffs; some social services.
4% Reduced Some food products; certain medical equipment for disabled persons; certain books; newspapers and some periodicals; e-books with an international standard book number (ISBN) ; online journals newspapers; TV licence; some social housing; some agricultural supplies; certain social services; motor vehicles for the disabled; some supplies for new buildings; construction work on new buildings for first housing).
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport.

21% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
12% Reduced Food products for infants; pharmaceutical products; medical products for disabled persons; domestic passenger transport; books (excluding e-books); newspaper and periodicals; hotel accommodation; district heating.
5% Reduced A range of locally produced vegetables and fruit.
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport.
21% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
9% Reduced Some domestic passenger transport; books (excluding e-books); newspapers and periodicals; hotel accommodation; district heating.
5% Reduced Pharmaceutical products; medical equipment for disabled persons.
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport.
17% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
14% Reduced Certain wines; solid mineral fuels, mineral oils and wood intended for use as fuel with the exception of wood for heating; washing and cleaning products; printed advertising matter; heat, cooling and steam with the exception of district heating; safe custody and administration of securities; administration of credit and credit guarantees by a person or organisation other than that granting the credit.
8% Reduced Cleaning in private households; minor repairs of bicycles, shoes and leather goods, clothing and household linen; hairdressing; district heating; natural gas; electricity; firewood; LPG; cut flowers and plants for decorative use; some works of art and antiques.
3% Reduced Foodstuffs; soft drinks; children's clothing and footwear; water supplies; certain pharmaceutical products; certain medical equipment for disabled persons; domestic passenger transport; certain books (excluding e-books); certain newspapers and periodicals; admission to cultural events and amusement parks; some pay TV/cable TV; agricultural supplies (excluding pesticides); hotel accommodation; restaurants (excluding alcoholic beverages); take away food; bars, cafes and nightclubs, cut flowers and plants for food production; supplies for of new buildings; some construction work on new buildings; admission to sports events; use of sports facilities; undertaker and cremation services; collection of domestic waste; some telephone services; some writers and composers services (royalties); raw wool; treatment of waste and waste water.
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport.

18% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
7% Reduced Hotel accommodation; use of sporting facilities.
5% Reduced Medical equipment for disabled persons; books (except for e-books); newspapers and periodicals; admission to some cultural events; minor repairs of shoes and leather goods, bicycles, clothing, and household linens; domestic care services; supply of electricity.
0% Zero Some supplies of food for human consumption (excluding some processed and pre-cooked foods); prescribed medicines; gold ingots and bars; seeds for food production; live animals for human consumption; intra-community and international transport.

21% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
9% Reduced Foodstuffs (excluding foodstuffs for animal consumption); some soft drinks; water supplies; certain pharmaceutical products; certain medical equipment for disabled persons; domestic passenger transport (excluding air travel); intra-community and international road, rail and inland waterway passenger transport; books (excluding e-books); newspapers and periodicals; admission to cultural events and amusement parks; writers and composers; certain renovation and repair of private dwellings; certain cleaning of private households; hotel accommodation; restaurants (excluding alcoholic beverages); take away food; bars, cafes and night clubs; admission to sports events; use of sports facilities; minor repairs of bicycles; shoes and leather goods; clothing and household linen; hairdressing; cut flowers and plants for decorative use (some exclusions) and food production.
0% Zero Taxation of gold coins; intra-community and international passenger transport by air and sea.

23% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
8% Reduced Certain foodstuffs; water supplies; pharmaceutical products; medical equipment for disabled persons; children's car seats; children’s diapers (disposable); domestic passenger transport; intra-community and international passenger transport by inland waterway and road; some newspapers and periodicals; admission to cultural events and amusement parks; some pay TV/cable TV; writers and composers; social housing; certain renovation and repair of private dwellings; certain agricultural supplies; hotel accommodation; restaurants (excluding alcoholic and certain other beverages); admission to sports events; use of sports facilities; undertaker and cremation services; collection of domestic waste; minor repairs of bicycles, shoes and leather goods, clothing and household linen; hairdressing; firewood; some take away food; some bars and cafes (restaurant service only); cut plants and flowers for decorative use and food production (some at 5%); some supplies of new buildings; some construction work on new buildings.
5% Reduced Some foodstuffs; fruit juices; certain books and specialist periodicals (excluding e-books); some agricultural supplies.
0% Zero Intra-community and international passenger transport (excluding inland waterway and road transport).
23% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
13% Reduced Some foodstuffs; admission to certain cultural events; restaurant & cafe food; some agricultural supplies; wine; mineral water; diesel for agriculture.
6% Reduced Some foodstuffs; water supplies; certain pharmaceutical products; medical equipment for disabled persons; children’s car seats; children’s diapers; domestic passenger transport; some books (excluding e-books); certain newspapers and periodicals; TV licence; social housing; renovation and repair of private dwellings; certain agricultural supplies; hotel accommodation; some social services; some medical and dental care; collection of domestic waste, minor repairs of bicycles; domestic care services; fruit juices; firewood; cut flowers and plants for decorative use and food production; construction work on new buildings; some legal services.
0% Zero Intra-community and international passenger transport.

19% Standard
All other taxable goods and services. Standard VAT rate decreased from 20% to 19% on 1 Jan 2017.
9% Reduced Foodstuffs; pharmaceutical products; medical equipment for disabled persons; hotel accommodation; water supplies; restaurants and catering services (includes supply of food in bars, cafes and nightclubs); some beer; soft drinks; cut flowers and plants for food production; some agricultural supplies.
5% Reduced Social housing; books (excluding e-books); newspapers and periodicals; admission to cultural events; admission to sporting events.
0% Zero Intra-community and international passenger transport.

20% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
10% Reduced Some foodstuffs; pharmaceutical products; some medical equipment for disabled persons; books (excluding e-books).
0% Zero Intra-community and international passenger transport.
22% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
9.5% Reduced Foodstuffs; water supplies; pharmaceutical products; medical equipment for disabled persons; domestic passenger transport; books (excluding e-books); newspapers and periodicals; cultural events and theme parks; writers and composers; social housing; renovation and repairs of private dwellings; cleaning of private dwellings; agricultural supplies; restaurants (preparation of meals only); hotel accommodation; admission to sports events; use of sports facilities; undertaker and cremation services; domestic waste collection; treatment of waste and waste water; minor repairs of bicycles, clothes and household linen, shoes and leather goods; domestic care services; hairdressing; soft drinks; intra-community and international road passenger transport; some take away food; cut flowers and plants for decorative use and food production; certain supplies of new buildings; certain construction work for new buildings.
0% Zero Intra-community and international transport (excluding road transport).
21% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
10% Reduced Some foodstuffs; water supplies; certain pharmaceutical products; some medical equipment for disabled persons; domestic passenger transport; intra-community and international transport by road, rail and inland waterways; some social housing; some renovation and repair of private dwellings; agricultural supplies; hotel accommodation; restaurants and catering services; some social services; domestic waste collection; some soft drinks; bars, cafes, night clubs and alcoholic beverages sold therein; take away food; cut flowers and plants for food production; some supplies of new buildings; some construction work on new buildings; cinema tickets; admission to sporting events (amateur sporting events only); treatment of waste and waste water.
4% Reduced Some foodstuffs; some pharmaceutical products; some medical equipment for the disabled; some books (excluding e-books); certain newspapers and periodicals; some social housing; some social services; some construction work on new buildings.
0% Zero Taxation of some gold coins, ingots and bars; intra-community and international transport by air and sea.
25% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
12% Reduced Some foodstuffs; non-alcoholic beverages; take away food; minor repair of bicycles, shoes and leather goods, clothing and household linen; hotel accommodation; restaurants.
6% Reduced Domestic passenger transport; books (excluding e-books); newspapers and some periodicals; admission to cultural events (excluding cinema); writers and composers; admission to sports events; use of sports facilities.
0% Zero
Medicines supplied on prescription or sold to hospitals; printing and other services related to the production of magazines for non-profit making organisations; intra-community and international passenger transport.

20% Standard
All other taxable goods and services.
5% Reduced Children’s car seats; certain social housing; some social services; electricity, natural gas and district heating supplies (for domestic use only); some energy-saving domestic installations and goods; LPG and heating oil (for domestic use only); some renovation and repairs of private dwellings; some medical equipment for disabled persons.
0% Zero Some social housing; printed books (excluding e-books); newspapers and periodicals; renovations to private housing; collections of domestic refuse; household water supplies; basic foodstuffs (excluding highly processed or pre-cooked food); some take away food; cut flowers and plants for food production; prescribed pharmaceutical products; certain medical supplies for disabled persons; domestic passenger transport; children's clothing and footwear; children’s diapers; live animals destined for human consumption; seed supplies; supply of animal feed; supplies of residential caravans and houseboats; construction of residential buildings (excludes conversion of non-residential into dwellings); some supplies of new buildings; sewerage services; motor cycle and bicycle helmets; commercial ship and aircraft stores; intra-community and international passenger transport; some gold ingots, bars and coins.